Different Type of Lamps for Luminous

Tuesday, 04 November 2014 04:41 Jignesh Parmar
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Different Type of Lamps for Luminous

Introduction:

Incandescent lamps:

Fluorescent lamps

  1. Fluorescent tube
  2. HP mercury vapour
  3. High-pressure sodium
  4. Low-pressure sodium
  5. Metal halide
  6. LED

 

 

Applications of Bulbs:

Type Application Advantage Disadvantage
Standard Incandescent bulbs - Domestic use
– Localized decorative lighting
- Direct connection without intermediate switchgear
– Reasonable purchase price
– Compact size
– Instantaneous lighting
– Good color rendering
- Low luminous efficiency and high electricity consumption
– Significant heat dissipation
– Short service life
Halogen Incandescent  bulbs - Spot lighting
– Intense lighting
- Direct connection
– Instantaneous efficiency
– Excellent color rendering
-Average luminous efficiency
Fluorescent tube - Shops, offices, workshops
– Outdoors
- High luminous efficiency
– Average color rendering
- Low light intensity of single unit
– Sensitive to extreme temperatures
HP mercury vapor - Workshops, halls, hangars- Factory floors - Good luminous efficiency
– Acceptable color rendering
– Compact size
– Long service life
- Lighting and relighting time
of a few minutes
High-pressure sodium -Outdoors
– Large halls
- Very good luminous efficiency - Lighting and relighting time
of a few minutes
Low-pressure sodium - Outdoors
– Emergency lighting
- Good visibility in foggy weather
– Economical to use
- Long lighting time (5 min.)
– Mediocre color rendering
Metal halide - Large areas
– Halls with high ceilings
- Good luminous efficiency
– Good color rendering
– Long service life
- Lighting and relighting time
of a few minutes
LED - Signaling (3-color traffic lights, “exit” signs and emergency lighting) - Insensitive to the number of switching
operations
– Low energy consumption
– Low temperature
- Limited number of colors
– Low brightness of single
unit

Type of HID (High Intensity Discharge) Lamp:

  1. Mercury vapour,
  2. Low pressure sodium,
  3. High pressure sodium and
  4. Metal halide.

(1) High Pressure Sodium

(2) Low Pressure Sodium

(3) Metal Halide


How Lamp starts:

What is Dragon Kink:

GENERAL BALLAST DESCRIPTION:

Type of HID (High Intensity Discharge) Ballast:

  1. Reactor (R).
  2. High Reactance Autotransformer (HX).
  3. Constant wattage Autotransformer (CWA)
  4. Magnetic Regulator.
  1. High Power Factor (HPF)
  2. Normal Power Factor (NPF).

(A) Electromagnetic Ballasts (EM)

(1) Reactor (R):

(2) High Reactance Autotransformer (HX):

(3) Constant Wattage Autotransformer (CWA), “Peak Lead Autotransformer”:

(4) Constant Wattage Isolated (CWI):

(5) Magnetic Regulator

(2) Electronic HID (e HID) Ballasts:

  1. Low frequency square wave (typically used for low-wattage lamps or with ceramic arc tube lamps in the 250W-400W range) and
  2. High frequency (for medium wattage lamps in the 250W to 400W range).

Component if HID (High Intensity Discharge):

(1) Ballast:

(2) Capacitors

  1. Dry metalized film and
  2. Oil-filled.

Dry Metalized Film Capacitors:

Oil-Filled capacitors:

(3) Ignitors (Starters):

Installation & Testing of HID (High Intensity Discharge):

1) Normal End of Lamp Life

2) Supply Input Measurement:

3) Open Circuit & Short Circuit Voltage:

a) Measuring Open Circuit Voltage

b) Short Circuit Lamp Current Test

4) Capacitor Testing and Ballast Performance

5) Ballast Continuity Checks

1)     Disconnect the ballast from power source and discharge the capacitor by shorting its terminals or wires together.

2)     Check for continuity of ballast primary coil between the voltage input leads.

1)     Disconnect the ballast from power source and discharge the capacitor by shorting its terminals or wires together.

2)     Check for continuity of ballast secondary coil between lamp and common leads

6) Ignitor Testing

7) Further Magnetic Ballast Checks

  1. Normal ballast end-of-life failure
  2. Operating incorrect lamps. Use of higher or lower wattage lamps than rated for the ballast may cause premature ballast end-of-life.
  3. Overheating due to heat from the fixture or high ambient temperatures causing the ballast temperature to exceed the Specified temperature.
  4. Voltage surge from lightening or power source malfunction.
  5. Mis-wired, pinched or shorted wires.
  6. Shorted or open capacitor.
  7. Incorrect capacitor for the ballast.

1)     Normal capacitor end-of-life failure.

2)     Overheated due to heat in the fixture or ambient temperature.

3)     Capacitor mounted too close to ballast.

4)     Incorrect voltage or capacitor value for ballast.

5)     Mechanical damage such as over-tightened capacitor clamp.

Fluorescent Ballast / Lamp Troubleshooting:

Problem

Action

Lamps will not operate.

Check if there is power to the fixture.
Be sure lamp is properly seated in socket.
Replace lamp.
Reseat or change starter (preheat only)
Check wiring connections.

Slow or erratic Starting

Check ground (fixture must be grounded for reliable starting)
Check ballast label for correct lamp.
Check wiring connections.
Check for low supply voltage.
Be sure lamp is properly seated in socket.
Test ballast

Excessive Noise

Tighten loose components.
Install ballasts of the proper sound rating.
Replace faulty ballast(s). Normal operation should resume.
Note: All fluorescent ballasts emit some noise

Lamp flickering and or swirling

New lamps with less than 100 hours of service can exhibit this
Defective starters
Lamp to cold
Defective lamp
Improper voltage
Defective ballast

Stroking /Blinking

Improper fixture design or ballast application
High circuit voltage
Improper wiring or installation
Defective ballast
Poor lamp maintenance
Incorrect type of lamps
Incorrect number of lamps
High ambient temperature


HID Ballast / Lamp Troubleshooting

1) Normal End of Lamp Life

2) Lamps Will Not Start

3) Lamp Cycling (starting and shutting off repeatedly)

4) Short Lamp Life

5) Fuses Blow or Circuit Breakers or Circuit Breakers Open On Lamp Start Up

5 Step Guide to Fault Finding in Reactor Type Circuits:

  1. If metal halide, disconnect neutral wire from ignitor.
  2. Check all electrical connections.
  3. Remove lamp.
  4. Check voltage at choke output is equal to mains.
  5. If no voltage, check the continuity of choke by measuring resistance against a known good choke. Depending upon wattage, this reading should be from 2-50Ω.
  6. If reading is infinity, choke is faulty. Replace.
  7. Check voltage at lamp holder. Must equal mains voltage.
  8. If OK, replace neutral wire in ignitor and replace lamp. If lamp does not fire – faulty ignitor. Replace.

Ballast-Ignitor-Capacitor-Lamp Connection Diagram:

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Credits: Shri Jignesh Parmar

Last Updated on Tuesday, 04 November 2014 04:47